The Annapolis Coalition is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the recruitment, retention, training and performance of the prevention and treatment workforce in the mental health and addictions sectors of the behavioral health field. As part of this effort, we seek to strengthen the workforce role of persons in recovery and family members in caring for themselves and each other, as well as improving the capacity of all health and human services personnel to respond to the behavioral health needs of the individuals they serve
Who We Are
The Annapolis Coalition is governed by a Board of Directors and is managed by a team of experts in workforce development. Advising the organization is a National Steering Committee comprised of consumer and family advocates and a diverse group of recognized experts in the delivery of behavioral healthcare.
There is broad consensus that there is a crisis regarding the nation’s behavioral health workforce. This crisis is characterized by a range of problems including the following:
- Difficulty finding or recruiting interested or qualified providers.
- Difficulty keeping or retaining employees once hired. Turnover rates in behavioral health organizations typically range from 20-70% annually.
- The existing workforce is aging and there is an inadequate flow of new workers to fill the jobs held by those who will retire over the next decade.
- A lack of providers qualified to care for children, adolescents and the elderly.
- Severe shortages of behavioral health providers in rural America.
- The use of ineffective training techniques and a reduction in the amount of overall training being delivered due to financial constraints in provider organizations.
- Decreased levels of supervision of direct care staff.
- The absence of training in management and leadership skills for the next generation of leaders in the field.
- The absence of training and supports for persons in recovery and families who care for them.
- Inadequate preparation of the workforce for treatment approaches involving integrated care.
The Coalition was formed in September 2001 and is the nation’s leader in strategic planning regarding the behavioral health workforce. The organization has advised federal agencies and commissions on workforce issues, and has provided technical assistance to states and non-profit organizations on practical workforce quality improvement initiatives.
The Annapolis Coalition was founded by members of the American College of Mental Health Administration (ACMHA) and the Academic Behavioral Health Consortium. In 2005, the organization was incorporated in Ohio as an independent, not-for-profit entity. Since its inception, the Coalition has been comprised of stakeholders from the addiction and mental health sectors of the behavioral health field, with active involvement from persons in recovery and their families.
March. American College of Mental Health Administration (now know as ACMHA: The College for Behavioral Health Leadership) summit. Changing the Actions, Strategies & Behaviors of Clinicians, Consumers, Families & Organizations: The critical role of education and training. This meeting provided the spark that eventually became The Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce.
September. The Annapolis Conference on Behavioral Health Workforce Education and Training is held. Co-sponsored by ACMHA and the Academic Behavioral Health Consortium, the conference brings together thought leaders (educators, providers, consumers) across the behavioral health spectrum to tackle the challenges of strengthening the workforce.
Papers from the Annapolis Conference are published as a special double issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health, which was guest co-edited by two of the Coalition’s founders. (Hoge, MA & Morris, JA  [Guest co-editors]). Special Double Issue: Behavioral Health Workforce Education and Training. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, Vol. 29, Nos. 4/5, May 2002.
President’s New Freedom Commission. During 2002, members of the Annapolis Coalition provided testimony to the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health highlighting the national crisis in workforce development. One of the recommendations of the Coalition was the creation of a national strategic action plan on behavioral health workforce development; another was the creation of a common data set across all behavioral health so that workforce trends could be analyzed.
Search for educational innovators. As part of the 2001 work, an informal search for innovations in education and training was conducted, and the results were published in the 2002 special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health (see above). In 2003, the Coalition initiated a formal search for additional innovators, using criteria modified from the Innovations in Government process of the Kennedy School of Government. (See below.)
Results of the formal search for innovation are published as part of a second special issue of Administration and Policy in Public Health, also guest edited by two of the Coalition founders, devoted to building an agenda for change through implementing best practices in education (O’Connell MJ, Morris JA, & Hoge MA. Innovation in behavioral health workforce education (131-165) In Hoge, M. A. & Morris, J. A. (Eds.). (2004). Implementing best practices in behavioral health workforce education – Building a change agenda [Special issue]. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32 (2).
Also in 2004, the Annapolis Coalition was asked to prepare a white paper on the behavioral health workforce for the Institute of Medicine. This white paper (Morris JA, Goplerud EN, Hoge MA. (2004). Workforce Issues in Behavioral Health. White paper commissioned by the Institute of Medicine and the Center for Mental Health Services) formed the basis for Chapter 7 of Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions (Institute of Medicine (US), Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders, National Academy Press 2006.)
May. Annapolis Coalition’s Conference on Behavioral Health Workforce Competencies. This conference reflected the Coalition’s belief that a focus on competencies based on empirical knowledge about effective intervention, was essential to change the workforce in sustainable ways. A set of papers was developed for this meeting, and they were subsequently revised and published (see below).
A final special double issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health focused on workforce competencies in behavioral health (Hoge, MA, Morris, JA and Paris, M (Eds). (2005) Workforce Competencies In Behavioral Health: A Special Double Issue. Vol. 32, Nos. 5/6, May/July 2005.)
National Action Plan. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), which was designated as the lead agency for implementing the President’s New Freedom Commission, engaged the Coalition to conduct an extensive, two-year process to develop the nation’s first comprehensive plan of action for developing the behavioral health workforce. The planning process created by the Coalition used eight expert panels composed of leading experts in workforce development across addictions, mental health, co-occurring disorders and prevention; the “true North” of this work was a focus on the impact of workforce development on consumers of behavioral health services, their families and their communities.
In addition to substantive work on the national action plan that continued in 2006, the Coalition was asked by SAMHSA to conduct another formal search for innovative practices. These were published in 2006, and a summary report was created.
In mid-2006, SAMHSA and the Coalition held a national meeting to give an overview of the action plan and to obtain stakeholder feedback that would drive the final editing of the formal plan to be released in 2007 (see below).
The National Action Plan on Behavioral Health Workforce Development is released. The plan, which is organized around seven overarching goals, includes findings about the dimensions of the workforce challenges facing the nation gleaned from the two-year process. In addition, detailed implementation plans are presented addressing concrete actions to achieve the seven goals. The plan is presented as a template for action at every critical point where leverage could be applied to catalyze change.
Consultations to states. Although the coalition had offered consultations to states and other organizations prior to the release of the plan, requests for assistance increased dramatically afterward. Formal assistance (to date) has been provided to Alaska, California, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina, New York and Washington; to organizations such as the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors and the National Prevention Network; and to numerous universities and professional groups.
Also in 2008, the Annapolis Coalition worked with its partners in the Direct Service Workers Resource Center (funded by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services) to publish a white paper that spanned workforce representatives from aging, intellectual and developmental disabilities, and behavioral health. This work is on-going.
NAMI rating the states. Periodically the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) conducts a survey of the states, publishing ratings of the states’ relative ranking in terms of the adequacy and quality of their mental health services. NAMI asked the Coalition to draft two questions on workforce issues, and then to evaluate the responses to those two questions.
Alaskan Core Competencies. In partnership with the Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, the University of Alaska and the Western Interstate Coalition for Higher Education, a series of efforts have been undertaken in Alaska. The first, the Alaskan Core Competencies for Direct Care Workers in Health and Human Services, was published in January 2010.
Pacesetter Awards. Funded by the Hitachi Foundation, the Annapolis Coalition conducted a national search for behavioral health provider organizations that were deemed exemplary in providing improved working conditions for their direct support workers, and produced improved client outcomes while maintaining the bottom line. The catch phrase for the project was: Better Jobs. Better Services. Better Business. Five programs were selected as National Award Winners, and two were named Programs of Merit.
Center for Integrated Health Solutions (CIHS). In 2011, the Heath Services and Resources Administration (HRSA) and SAMHSA jointly funded a center dedicated to bi-directional integration of behavioral health and primary care services. CIHS is managed by the National Council for Behavioral Healthcare (the National Council), which has asked the Annapolis Coalition to serve as the lead for CIHS’ workforce efforts. An early project was the creation of a master plan for CIHS workforce activities.
International Working Group on Workforce Development. The leadership of the International Initiative on Mental Health Leadership (IIMHL) asked the Annapolis Coalition to form a working group on behavioral health workforce development, and, as a first step in that effort, the Coalition served as host for a meeting including Canada, England, New Zealand and the US; the meeting was held in San Francisco prior to the full meeting of IIMHL. The group agreed to formalize and create an ongoing initiative, which will be further elaborated in 2012.
Other international efforts. Dr. Gail Stuart, Chair of the Coalition Board, was asked by the Carter Center to lead an initiative in Liberia that will create a robust training program for training psychiatric nurses in that country. Dr. Michael Hoge was invited to present on workforce development to a group of Chinese psychiatrists visiting Yale. And Coalition Executive Director John Morris has been working with Alliant University on an initiative for workforce development among substance use workers in Mexico.
The Coalition continued its work with Alaska, CIHS, IIMHL and Liberia.
John Morris, M.S.W.
1001 Barton St. | Columbia, SC 29203
Office: 803.708.4030 | Cell: 803.546.1634
Email: [email protected]
Senior Science & Policy Advisor
Michael A. Hoge, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology | Yale Department of Psychiatry
300 George St., Suite 901 | New Haven, CT 06511
Phone: 203.494.7491 | Fax: 203.785.2028
Email: [email protected]
Director of Operations
46 Little Bluestem |santa Fe, NM | 87508
Email: [email protected]g
Board of Directors
Gail W. Stuart, Ph.D., A.P.R.N., B.C., F.A.A.N.
Dean and Professor | Medical University of South Carolina | College of Nursing
P.O. Box 250160 | 99 Jonathan Lucas St. | Charleston, SC 29425
Phone: 843.792.3941 | Fax: 843.792.0504
Leighton Y. Huey, M.D
Associate Dean for Community & Continuing Medical Education | Birnbaum/Blum Professor of Psychiatry| University of Connecticut School of Medicine
263 Farmington Ave. | MC 1912 | Farmington, CT 06030-1410
Phone: 860.679.2725 | Fax: 860.679.1821
Michael Flaherty, Ph.D
Clinical Psychologist | Founder, Institute for Research, Education and Training in the Addictions
4407 Old William Penn Highway | Suite 5 | Murrysville, PA 15668
The Annapolis Coalition engages senior consultants who are consumer and family advocates and experts in workforce development in mental health and addictions.
Wayne F. Dailey, Ph.D
Wayne F. Dailey, Ph.D. is a licensed clinical psychologist with over 35 years experience in public sector behavioral health clinical care, administration, and management. He previously served as Regional Director, Senior Policy Adviser, and Deputy Commissioner of the Connecticut Department of Mental Health. Dr. Dailey has been directly involved in creating dozens of community-based mental health programs and in crafting public sector policies responsive to the needs of people with serious psychiatric and substance use conditions. He also has a special interest in building and sustaining culturally competent behavioral health services. Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks, he helped organize Connecticut’s behavioral health response for the general public, which served as a model for many other states. He was the recipient of Connecticut State Government’s Distinguished Managerial Service Award in 2003 and was honored in 2005 for his Distinguished Psychological Contribution in the Public Interest by the Connecticut Psychological Association. In 2009, Dr. Dailey retired from the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services and became a private consultant. He holds an appointment as Assistant Clinical Professor in Psychiatry at the Yale University School of Medicine. In his work with the Annapolis Coalition he served as Project Coordinator for the Behavioral Health Pacesetter Award funded by the Hitachi Foundation. Dr. Dailey led the Coalition’s national effort to identify exemplary workforce practices that improved the lives of direct care workers serving individuals with mental health and substance use conditions, while simultaneously improving client care, and the business vitality of the employer.
Susan A. Maslack, M.S.W.
Susan A. Maslack, M.S.W. provides facilitation, planning, project management and training to people and organizations working to improve mental health and addiction related services and supports that promote recovery and resiliency. Her expertise includes workforce development in cultural competence for providers and organizations; facilitating strategic planning and project development; curriculum development and training; empowerment of people with lived experience of behavioral health conditions and their family members; and facilitating policy and system improvements. Until January of 2015, Ms. Maslack was Director of Site Development and Promotion and Assistant Professor and Academic Advisor for the Southern New Hampshire University Graduate Program in Community Mental Health & Mental Health Counseling (PCMH). For twenty years she provided instruction and graduate student advising for students in the program in sites across the country, including Alaska, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Prior to working in PCMH, Susan was the Title IV-E Child Welfare Training Project Coordinator and faculty member at the University of Vermont Department of Social Work, and taught mental health practice to graduate students in the MSW program. She also worked on staff as a planner and consultant for The Center for Community Change Through Housing And Support. Previous to her long career in workforce development, education and training, she worked providing direct mental health services for children and families, in their homes and in therapeutic foster care, as well as for adults with serious psychiatric disabilities, in hospital and community-based settings.
Manuel Paris, Psy.D.
Manuel Paris, Psy.D. is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Yale University School of Medicine and Deputy Director of Hispanic Services for the Connecticut Mental Health Center. He also serves as Director of Training for the Latino Track of the Yale Psychology Pre and Post-Doctoral Fellowship Program at the Hispanic Clinic. His research and scholarly contributions focus on the evaluation of cultural/linguistic adaptations of evidence based assessments and interventions, multisite training and fidelity monitoring, and workforce development. In these areas, he has played a key role in numerous projects and collaborated with a diverse group of faculty and researchers to expand the focus on Latino behavioral health issues. He has contributed to the development and implementation of several state and federally funded projects that examine the key factors necessary to create and disseminate best practices in the treatment of Latinos, in addition to collaborating on efforts aimed at developing culturally and linguistically adapted protocols. An interrelated area is linked to his expertise in rigorous treatment fidelity assessment and training in Motivational Interviewing. In particular, Dr. Paris has collaborated on several NIDA funded grants with the purpose of ensuring treatment adherence and integrity by adapting study interventions for individuals of Latina/o descent and training personnel to meet fidelity standards.
Jessica Wolf, Ph.D.
Jessica Wolf, Ph.D. is a seasoned leader with extensive public sector administrative, workforce development and teaching experience. She is Principal of Decision Solutions, a behavioral health workforce consulting practice focusing on peer workforce and career development. Also a Yale Department of Psychiatry Assistant Clinical Professor, she served as the first Director of the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services Education and Training Division, as a Connecticut Department of Mental Health Regional Administrator in Southwestern Connecticut, and as founder, Coordinator and instructor in the Housatonic Community College MERGE Mental Health Certificate Program funded initially by a three-year federal NIMH Human Resource Development grant. Dr. Wolf has undertaken consulting projects at national, state and local levels, including Connecticut, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas and Virginia. These included creation of a children’s mental health foundation, organizational consultation to an advocacy organization, statewide mental health employment curriculum development, work and recovery program consultation, mental health and peer specialist curriculum development, as well as leading numerous projects in Connecticut’s federally funded behavioral health workforce transformation initiative. She has been an active participant in Annapolis Coalition projects over the past decade and has written articles and book chapters on behavioral health topics. She is passionate about helping to promote more inclusive and welcoming organizational cultures and developing an adequately trained and compensated peer workforce with continuing education, academic credentials and career ladder opportunities. Personal and family experience with mental health conditions enhances her understanding of workforce challenges and opportunities.